Hupfeld Model A Phonoliszt-Violina

Hupfeld Model A Phonoliszt-Violina, with the case front removed to show the interior mechanisms (Sanfilippo Collection).

The Hupfeld Phonoliszt-Violina was one of the most amazing of all
music machines. Its intricate mechanisms reproduce the music of three
violins and piano, with near-human expression. The violins are played by 49
mechanical fingers and a rotating circular bow with 1,344 individually-tied
strands of horsehair. Mechanisms cause the bow speed and pressure to
change automatically, as controlled by perforations in the paper music roll,
to provide a wide dynamic range, crescendo and decrescendo, accent,
and other musical nuances.

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